By: Hunar Khalil

Supervisor: Mr. Aydin Col


Oral microbiology is the investigation and study of the microorganisms in the oral cavity and the connection between the oral microorganisms with each other and with the host and refers to the population of microorganisms. Oral cavity is the most complex and accessible microbial ecosystem of the human body, which contains, teeth, gingival (gums), tongue, buccal mucosa (cheeks) and throat. Human oral cavity is sterile at the beginning of their life when they born, but after that will be contaminated with the various, bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. And the oral cavity is home to a lot of microorganisms which some of them will stay for a period of time maybe hours and days but some of them will stay for a long time. All microorganisms which present in oral cavity doesn’t cause diseases and also may be beneficial, but when there is a good condition for some microorganisms they will start to grow and make problem to the health. When there are diseases in any part or places it needs treatment in order to inhibit this disease to don’t make any problems. Some diseases in oral cavity will be killer if we will not treat them, for example Candida albicans which it is pathogenic yeast. Sometimes they coexist peacefully with other yeast and bacteria, but sometimes their production may be cannot control because of many factors. First it binges to dominating our gut; it affects digestion and weakness of immune system.

In order to know Garlic can inhibit the growth of microorganisms we used Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method by using two types of agar which they are MacConky agar and Mueller Hinton Agar. We have used 26g of each agar with 500ml of distilled water were prepared and autoclaved at 121 C for 20min. We used four Petri dishes to culture the microorganisms. The microorganism’s sample were cultured which taken from my mouth and Transport to Swab. We have used 10g of Black seed grinded by (Stone Grinder) for 20 mints and mixed with 200 ml of distilled water. We putted our sample (Garlic) to inside the Petri dishes and then The Petri dishes were put into the incubator in (37C) for 24 hours to see the result. According to our result in this study it shows that Garlic can kill or inhibit the microorganisms to grow in oral cavity. The aim of this study is to find and evaluate the effects of Garlic on the growth of oral micro flora ether they growth or stop the growth or slow down the growth.

Key words: allium sativum; antimicrobial activity; garlic; oral cavity;

By: Kaiwan Babakr Hussein

Supervisor: Mr. Aydin col


      The oral cavity is the most intricate and the most accessible microbial environment of the human body. More than 7000 microorganisms lives on or inside a host however does not bring about any apparent disease. In any case, this terminology might delude, the same number of microbes can, under specific conditions, be related with human disease.  Pistacia atlantica as antimicrobial specialists are perceived as protected common substances to their clients and for the earth and they have been measured at low risk for resistance growth by pathogenic microorganisms. The antimicrobial properties of the natural species are known. The usage of different species of Pistachio as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-atherogenic, hypoglycemia, antitumor and facilitating hepatic function is known. So, it is of interest to evaluate the effect of Pistacia atlantica on bacterial in mouth. The inhibitory effect gum of Pistacia atlantica without extraction of the gum were tested against human oral microorganisms, no effect was shown on microorganisms which were by Kirby-Bauer method with both media Mueller Hinton Agar (gram positive) and MacConkey Agar (gram negative). But in other cases which were used extract of the gum and used another methods, the result shown effect on microorganisms by decreasing the number of microbes.

Keywords: microorganism, gum, Pistacia atlantica, antibacterial

By: Mohammed Muwlood Jameel

Supervisor: Mr. Aydin col


There are hundreds of microorganisms which are living inside our oral cavity that composed of different effects on our health. Those microorganisms are mixing with the different kind of food which we eat in our daily life. With optimum environment refers to body temperature and moisture of mouth cavity that help bacteria, fungi, viral species and other microorganisms to live and reproduce with all sources they have. Most of these pathogens are anaerobic organisms and because of that, they need special cultivation methods which weren’t discovered before. Mixing of these microorganisms with oral cavity can Couse may diseases included: dental caries, plaque, acute and chronic oral candidiasis and many other disease effect the oral cavity. Many kinds of food are effected and produce different types of bacteria and other microorganisms which can be sugar-filled, non-nutritious snakes that effect the teeth, sweetened fruit drinks and many other kinds of food. When bacteria connects with those kinds of food inside oral cavity , acid provided in that aria and that will result in oral cavity diseases . To know the effect of food on oral flora, we have chosen one kind of plant which is the Arabic coffee that we drink it in our daily life. In laboratory, I cultured the bacteria with Arabic coffee inside some petri dishes with Kirby-Bauer Method and waited for 24 hours to know its effect on oral flora. As a result of that experiment, there was no any effect of Arabic coffee on our oral cavity. Some studies by Institute, creator of “Food Safety 1995 discovered that there is some effects if we take high amount of coffee which identified by other methods. Another study said that all caffeine in most kind of coffee are effected, but black caffeinated coffee is not effected and that can be found in Arabic coffee. That kind of caffeine composed of many benefits for our mouth like inhibits mouth cancer and plaque-producing bacteria on teeth. So, different studies and different result discovered about the effect of coffee on oral flora but most of the effects depends on how much amount of coffee, food and drinks we take every day and how can we take care about our heath in our daily life.

By: Saman Khidir Junaid

Supervisor: Mr. Aydin COL


The mouth is on of the most common gate or place between the body and outside that is why is act like an entry for many microbes especially from the air and during eating. The oral cavity includes protozoa, fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Because those protozoa, fungi, viruses, and bacteria are sometimes cause disease and they make us sick that is why we have to use something to prevent ourselves from being sick, so many years age till know the plant oil and extracts have been used to prevent and treat many diseases, in the other hand plant has a wide use in the food sources and specially the Mentha genus (mint plant) which is has diversity of usages and it can grow almost all over the earth and in many different environments. And it has various medicinal and aromatic values. In this study 10g of fresh mint have used, which collected in the home garden in Erbil, 10g of fresh mint grinded by (Stone Grinder) for 20 mints­ and mixed with 200 ml of distilled water used in this study, and the aim of this study is to find the mint effect on growth of oral micro flora. And the result showed that mint plant freshly does not have effect on growth of oral micro flora. In conclusion it is better to use mint plant with other extracts to due to have more effect.

Key words: microorganism, micro flora, oral cavity, Mentha, plant extract

By: Zryan Dler

Supervisor: Mr. Aydin Col


Oral microbiology is the investigation and study of the microorganisms in the oral cavity and the connection between the oral microorganisms with each other and with the host and refers to the population of microorganisms. Oral cavity is the most complex and accessible microbial ecosystem of the human body, which contains, teeth, gingival (gums), tongue, buccal mucosa (cheeks) and throat. Human oral cavity is sterile at the beginning of their life when they born, but after that will be contaminated with the various, bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. And the oral cavity is home to a lot of microorganisms which some of them will stay for a period of time maybe hours and days but some of them will stay for a long time. All microorganisms which present in oral cavity doesn’t cause diseases and also may be beneficial, but when there is a good condition for some microorganisms they will start to grow and make problem to the health. When there are diseases in any part or places it needs treatment in order to inhibit this disease to don’t make any problems. Some diseases in oral cavity will be killer if we will not treat them, for example Candida albicans which it is pathogenic yeast. Sometimes they coexist peacefully with other yeast and bacteria, but sometimes their production may be cannot control because of many factors. First it binges to dominating our gut; it affects digestion and weakness of immune system.

In order to know Nigella sativa can inhibit the growth of microorganisms we used Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method by using two types of agar which they are MacConky agar and Mueller Hinton Agar. We have used 26g of each agar with 500ml of distilled water were prepared and autoclaved at 121 C for 20min. We used four Petri dishes to culture the microorganisms. The microorganism’s sample were cultured which taken from my mouth and Transport to Swab. We have used 10g of Black seed grinded by (Stone Grinder) for 20 mints and mixed with 200 ml of distilled water. We putted our sample (Nigella sativa) to inside the Petri dishes and then The Petri dishes were put into the incubator in (37C) for 24 hours to see the result. According to our result in this study it shows that Nigella sativa can kill or inhibit the microorganisms to grow in oral cavity. The aim of this study is to find and evaluate the effects of Nigella sativa on the growth of oral micro flora ether they growth or stop the growth or slow down the growth.

By: Khalat Nawzad

Supervisor: Chnar Najmaddin


This study evaluated the anatomical and palynological studies of investigated cultivars (Capsicum annum cv. biotic and Capsicum annum cv. california) that collected from Agriculture collage fields in Bardarash in Erbil. The anatomical results reveled the midrib outline, lamina and margin shapes are different between cultivars that was significance taxonomical value. As well as the epidermal cells are different, they are polygonal to sinuous with anomocytic, anisocytic and hemiparacytic stomata. The pollen grains shape and size indicate to presence the difference in polar and equatorial view between the taxa.   

By: Aram Ibrahim Muhammad

Supervised by

Dr.Karzan Muhsin Barznjy

Dr.Nasraw Mustafa Mahmud


Depression is a common mental disorder and is one of the main causes of disabilities worldwide. Lacking thematic depressive disorder assessment methods is the key reason that many depressive patients can’t be handled properly. It is the serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act. It has many causes and many types. In this study we used Beck Depression Inventory for testing our participant during seeking medical advice at hospital and we tested the relationship between cancers and the level of depression. We tested 52 patients and it appeared as a result that the gender, age and the level of education all didn’t affect the level of depression in those cancer patients and the depression didn’t affect the level of cancer patients.

Keywords: Depression, Cancer

By: Halim Hamza

Supervisor: Dr. Karzan Mohammad


Autism spectrum Disorders is a group of developing brain disorders, which the individual face challenges with social engagement and age-appropriate play and fail to develop appropriate peer relationships according to their developmental level. During our study, we reported with children’s parent; this report presents data on the prevalence of diagnosed Autism spectrum Disorders (ASD) we asked some of the questions to the parents about their children. The information that we collected drown in (2018) of Erbil city in two centers (Hanna and Bahoz) center. The prevalence of parent report of ASD among children aged (2_11) years increased the number of children with ASD from (2016 to 2018). It was (2% ) increase to (6%)  the magnitude of improvement was more significant for a boy than a girl, and rate of prevalence of Autism day by day it will increase in Erbil city.
Autism, Autism spectrum Disorders, prevalence, rehabilitation

By Muhammad Ahmad Muhammad

Supervised by:

Dr. Karzan A. Mohammad


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an inflammatory reply of the urothelium to bacterial attack that is mostly joined with bacteriuria and pyuria. Nevertheless, the present study is aiming to know incidence of UTI in Sulaymaniah, to perform antibiotic resistant study, to evaluate medical treatment, to identify the main causative agents, to know how to prevent this condition, to reach the proper diagnosis, of UTI.  Evaluation were done for them by taking full history , physical examination and investigations like general urine examination ,  complete blood count, renal function test ( serum creatinine, blood uria ) ,  ultrasound  and kidney ureter bladder . All are treated by antibiotic, analgesia and intravenous fluid. Mid-stream urine samples were used for culture and sensitivity. These patients presented for a face to face interview. Data were collected in soft copies and arranged in concerned tables in MS Excel. Our findings were among 60 patients of Sulaymaniah Teaching Hospital and as we know that UTI is common among female mostly. Although mostly 23 patients diagnosed as acute pyelonephritis then another 23 patients as cystitis, moreover 30 patients presented with a sign and symptom of dysuria , fever and frequency, furthermore the duration of symptoms were 1, 2 and 3 days, as it is cleared that in the medical examination we had 24 patients with suprapubic tenderness which was the most recorded medical examination among the others, further the main symptoms of the patients was dysuria which we had 19 cases. Finally the age range of most of the patients were between 21- 40 years. In conclusion our study shows that the 35 female patients more affected than the  25 male patients,  while Gentamycin was the most frequent used antibiotic for patients. Further study on Escherichia coli( E. coli) should be done because about 90 % of causative microorganism is E. coli which is sensitive to Gentamycin.

Keywords: UTI, bacteriuria, pyuria, acute pyelonephritis, cystitis

By: Noor Dilshad Hashim

Supervisor: Dr. Karzan A. Mohammad


Oral candidiasis knew as oral thrush among other names in candidiasis that occur in the mouth typically on the tongue or inner cheeks. In which this is known as oral candidiasis and that the oral candidiasis is a mycosis (yeast spherical & dimorphic, fungal infection) of Candida species on the mucous membranes of the mouth, also it is commonly present as a superficial infection of the vaginal mucus. In our study, we collect 100 samples from two hospitals in Erbil city (Nanakeli and Raparin hospital) at 10th of Jan to 1st of March of 2018. We examined each sample by culturing and microscope, and we confirm 30 of positive samples by APIc test. The result is 38 patients that have oral thrushes is positive, and most patients are In Nanakeli hospital, and 25 of those positive to culturing and microscopic examination are Candida sp. In conclusion, increasing our understanding of the epidemiology of Candida sp. colonization in children and comparing the two hospitals that the first one has cancer patients and another one has no cancer patients. Which sound that in immunosuppressive patients the opportunistic fungi can grow well and can become infections such as oral thrushes, or vaginal thrushes or infection in the gut, and we can easily find the difference in incidence between two hospitals.

By: Sarah Faris Ghassan

Supervisor: Dr. Karzan A. Mohammad


Stem cell therapy is the new trend to heal or prevent a disorder. Stem cells are unspecialized undifferentiated cells, that have the ability to differentiate into specific cells. In addition, stem cells can divide and produce rapidly to make more cells of the same type. The most widely used stem cell therapy is bone marrow transplant for leukemia patients.

The present study is a trial to review and analyze the usage of stem cell therapy in Iraq from to 2009 to 2018. The data showed that stem cell therapy is a doable approach for various diseases. Autologous stem cell transplant, according to the study, is being used to treat tens of diseases in the country some of which have a higher number of cases than others. Out of 1142 studied case the highest number of 385 suffered a spinal cord injury, followed by 165 cases of cerebral palsy, and 154 cerebrovascular accidents. Among the patients who received stem cell therapy, the majority were males according to the recorded data.

Analyzing that data, it has been discovered that the highest rate of diseases was among people aged 21 to 40. Within the timeline of the study, 2017 had the biggest share of the cases. Furthermore, the study also tackled post treatment factors such as physical therapy, mental health, and progress of treatment. In conclusion, the stem cell therapy is a promising approach for common diseases in Iraq and the community’s response is growing higher toward this technique. The offered therapy, however, is scientifically unproven for most of the cases. Improvement has been indicated in several cases, but further investigation is required to follow up the patients after treatment.


Keywords: stem cell therapy, stem cells, autologous stem cell transplant.

By: Abdullah Layth Salih

Supervisor: Dr.samir jawdat



Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a single celled parasite called Toxoplasma gondii. Studies have shown that up to 95% of some populations have been infected with Toxoplasma in many places in the world. Among infected people, very few have symptoms. That’s because a healthy person’s immune system usually stops the parasite from causing illness. However, the infectious disease is very dangerous to pregnant women and people who have weak immune system. Tests are done to detect the presence of Toxoplasma gondii infection. Results of the infection’s test are given as numbers of Igg and IgM and are compared with the standard range.

This study aims to analyze a sample of 50 cases data collected from in 2017-2018 from Rojan laboratory in Erbil city, Iraq. The data showed that Toxoplasmosis has the highest rate of 58% among women aged between 21 to 30. The data also analyzed the IgG and IgM levels in several groups’ ages. All the groups had a high level of IgG compared to IgM.

Keywords: Toxoplasmosis, Toxoplasma gondii, Erbil city, women, IgG, igM.

By: Asawer Hasan Abdulsattar

Supervisor: Dr.samir jawdat


    Platelets, also called thrombocytes, are fragments of cytoplasm produced in the bone marrow, and their role is to stop the bleeding of a blood vessel caused by an injury by the blood clotting process. Thus, having more or less than the safe range of the platelets can be a serious threat to a person’s life.

Immune Thrombocytopenia, or in short ITP, is a common bleeding disorder that is caused mainly by the production of autoantibodies by the immune system. These autoantibodies attack the platelets, resulting in lowering their number in the body less than the safe range which is 150,000 to 400,000 per microliter of blood. ITP affects adults and children equally, but with different types. Adults are at risk of getting the chronic type of ITP, while children tend to develop the acute ITP, especially if they recently got a viral infection. Some observable signs and symptoms can reveal the presence of ITP, such as, bruising, nosebleed or bleeding in the mouth or the skin, and abnormally heavy menstruation. The purpose of the present study is to detect the ITP cases around Iraq for the year 2017, also to find out the causes that may develop or lead to ITP

The data that were collected from forty-one samples, have shown that adults are more susceptible to the disease, since they were the majority (63%), than younger children who were only (37%) of the overall number of samples. For the sexes, ITP in women is more prevalent (59%) than males (41%), due to having a monthly bleeding, menstrual cycle, that decreases the number of platelets in the body. The data were collected from seven different places (provinces) around Iraq. However, (73%) of the samples were from Erbil city. Due to the availability of the healthcare required for the disease. Also the large numbers of refuges found in Erbil city, made the percentage higher than the rest of the provinces. There is a call to work on this research with a larger number of samples for better understanding of ITP in this country.


(Thrombocytes, Blood clotting, Immune Thrombocytopenia, Autoantibodies, Chronic ITP, Acute ITP).

By: Ashty omer muhammmad

Supervisor: Dr.samir jawdat


The present intestinal protozoa infection study, investigated the prevalence of intestinal protozoans, among 25310 patients, examined during the period from January to December 2017. The investigation carried on many laboratories in hospitals and health centers distributed among localities in sulaimanya city. Out of 25310

patients examined, 2790 (11.02%), of which were infected with the intestinal parasite, approximately 139.5 patients per 100,000 person. More than four species of intestinal protozoa were recorded in this study, and these identified as follow as: Entamoeba histolytica 61.2%, Giardia lamblia 26.6%,Blastocystis hominis 6.81% , Entamoeba coli 4.38% and others 0.97%. According to the sex of patient’s involvement, we found that males (64.32%) significantly were highly infected than females (35.67%), and about infection of age groups we found that the age groups (1-10 years) and (11-20years) were highly infected than others which were (30.0%) and (30.4%) respectively. The present study indicated that the rate of patients infected in month of June (13.9%) were higher than other months and the lower rate were in months of January and February 8.3% and 9.5% respectively.

Key words: Prevalence ,Sulaimanya city ,risck factor and intestinal protozoa infection

By: Ishik Ejrin

Supervisor: Dr.samir jawdat


Intestinal parasites are one of common organism causes diseases among children in the world. Intestinal parasitic infection is one of the most common types of infection in children. A parasite is an organisms that consists single cell, parasite cannot live alone due to live with anther organisms such as human and animals and cause to them some diseases. The best methods to diagnosis parasites are stool and blood tests and also used molecular technic as PCR. Medications used to treat diseases differ depending on the type of infection. Doctors may use antibiotics or antifungal drugs. In most cases, patients can stay at home and maintain a normal schedule. Children should stay out of day care until they are adequately treated and cannot spread the infection. During recovery, patients are advised to drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration. Drought is a condition in which the body is depleted of water, usually due to excessive and non-causing of body fluids, such as sweating, vomiting or diarrhea.The results suggest to study to discover new drugs or medicine to treat intestinal parasite infections.

Keywords: (Intestinal; Protozoa; Infection; Pathogenesis; Immunologic reaction).

By: Sumaya Ismail

Supervisor: Dr. Samir J. Bilal


Kidney transplantation is the treatments which the patients used when they reach to the end-stage of disease, and kidney transplantation is improve the quality of life by getting kidney from the donor. Most of the donors in Kurdistan are Arabs, one of the causes of death in kidney transplant recipient is malignancy and cancer is one of the other risks of death at the end -stage of renal kidney transplant. There is immunosuppressive drug for recipient’s patient after kidney transplantation. The aim of our study here is to define the rate of kidney problem among people in Kurdistan region generally and Erbil governor especially to know the reasons behind the high rate of male more than female to do kidney transplantation. In Kurdistan region kidney transplantation is mostly depends on LR donor. We used date from 40 patients from Kurdistan region from Jmhuri Hospital and we did an interview with patients after kidney transplantation who they did from different years , starts from 2005 till 2018, we found out that most of the kidney’s patients recipients are male(65%) and the rest of them were female, the highest age of our study were between( 19-39) after than the elder one above 40 to 60, O blood group was recorded the highest amount among patients  which have a bad effect on patients during surgery because they can donate to all other groups but  they can’t receive blood, most of the kidney transplantation was done at 2013_2015 but the proportion were decreased in 2017_2018 because of the economic issue. The elder patients have more chance to do a success kidney transplant because of their immunity more than younger. So the rejection is happen more in younger people. Environment has a position in this issue especially inside the big cities because of the unclean substances.

Key words: Age; Gender; (ESRD); Recipient; Blood group O; LRD; LURD

By: Hemn Hussen Naby

Supervisor: Dr. Ibrahim Yaseen


 Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the human neuronal diseases that can affect the nervous system, including the brain and the spinal cord, in form of the myelin sheath deficiency. Although recent treatments for MS reduce inflammation efficiently, these treatments fail to repair the damaged central nervous system (CNS). Cellular treatments, such as stem cell therapy, may provide a new solution for strengthening and regeneration the affected myelin layer through remyelination. The purpose of this research is to review the recent advancement in the MS – stem cell therapy and shed the light on the current clinical MS cases that undergoing stem cell therapy in Erbil. Data collection have been conducted through the observation of the treatment processes and record the clinical manifestations and biochemical measurements of the patients. This approach of treatment might provide a novel strategy of MS therapy in the future.

Keywords: multiple sclerosis, MS therapies, mesenchymal stem cell

By: Shamal Taib Asad

Supervisor: Dr. Ibrahim Yaseen


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of the dementia illness. The estimations showed that 47 million people in 2015 have dementia, whilst this number would be increased to 130 million by 2050. Stem cells are types of progenitor cells that produced during the advanced steps of the zygote and embryo development to be differentiated into specialised cells. These cells also produced in some adult organs including the bone merrow. Recent clinical studies showed the high potency of these cells to replace the damaged cells in an organ or tissue and provide a stimulating microenvironment to which leads to novel treatment strategy. In this project, we will critically review the recent work carried on stem cells therapy in AD. Data will also include some local information from AD patients undergoing stem cells treatment in Erbil. This technology of treatment would raise a better lifestyle for those who are suffering from the dementia and specifically AD.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, stem cells, dementia.

By: Shams Thamer

Supervisor: Dr.Ibrahim Yaseen


Diabetes is a highly frequent disease and is estimated that 5 million people in the UK by 2025 will have this illness. The sugar metabolism that controlled by the insulin hormone in the diabetic patients is affected by either genetic factors or physiological conditions, which address the two types diabetes I & II. Although several methods of treatments have been developed, the complete treatment of the disease still challenging. Stem cells are produced in the embryo during the different development stages and in adults in certain organs. Due to their ability to differentiate into several specialized cells, stem cells addressed a promised approach in the regenerative medicine. In this research, we will review the current development in stem cells recruitment in the diabetes therapy and assess the advancement in the local patients whose treatment has been processed in Erbil’s hospitals. Curing diabetic patients with stem cells may introduce a significant progress in the disease treatment.

Keyword: Stem Cells, Diabetes, cellular therapy

By: Adil Abdulaamid Najeeb

Supervised by: Dr. Rozhgar A. Khailany


 Kidney stone is a complex disease resulting from environmental as well as hereditary factors and principally composes of approximately 75% calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals, which are formed through a multi-step process. Osteopontin gene was recognized through isolating cDNA from cultured rat osteosarcoma cells in 1986 and located on human chromosome 4 (4q22.1). This gene encodes several non-collagenous bone and dentin proteins. In this study, 93 normal control samples and 92 kidney stonedisease samples that were grouped according to the types of kidney stone disease and clinical characteristics of patients, including gender and average age were observed with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RLFP) technique.58 patients and 43 controls displayed the “C or G” / “C or G” genotype, 48 patients and 34 controls displayed T / “G or C” genotype. Since there is no appropriate restriction enzyme to recognize the G or C nucleotide in that position, it could not be possible to discriminate the C-G nucleotides. Additionally no T/T genotype was observed. The results were found statistically significant by chi-square test (p < 0.05). The results were statistically significant by chi-square test (p <0.05). In conclusion, the polymorphism analysis revealed that the OPN gene can be a risk factor for kidney stone development and recommends that genetic variations in the OPN gene alter individual susceptibility to kidney stone.

Keywords: Kidney stone, osteopontin, polymorphism, PCR-RLFP


By: Adil Hussain Aziz

Supervised by: Dr. Aydin Col


An antimicrobial is an agent that slaughters or restrains the development of microorganisms. The microbial agent may be a chemical compounds and physical operators. These operators meddled with the development and generation of causative life forms like microscopic organisms, parasites, infection etc. Antimicrobial Drugs are sedate utilized to treat a microbial contamination. Antimicrobial drugs can be gathered agreeing to the microorganisms they act fundamentally against. Cases anti-microbial s, antifungals, antiprotozoal, and antiviral drugs. For breading E. coli, plastic petri dishes with a diameter of 0.25 inches of antibiotics, Blood agar, MacConkey agar and chocolate agar were used. . For the identifying of microscopic organisms there are four biochemical tests that are:

  1. (SIM TEST)
  2. (Urease test) which is identifying the display of Urease proteins
  3. (Triple Sugar tests) utilized for testing the sugar fermentation.
  4. (Semi citrate test)

In this research 60 samples were collected the E. coli was 4.4% Resistance to the Tazobactam and it was 93.8% resistance to Ampicillin and 93.2% resistance to Amoxillin.

By: Ahmad Hoshyar

Supervised by: Asst. Prof. Dr. Samir J. Bilal



A total of 9 specimens of Silurus triostegus, and the research showeded presence of four parasite species containing two protozoa species, namely: Myxobolus pfeifferi and Trichodina ranae, one species of digenetic trematodes Diplostomum spathacceum, one cestode species Botheriocephalus acheilognathi and one nematode species Procamallanus viviparous.

The fishes were examined for exo and endo parasites as soon as possible in life and others are deep frozen in the laboratory and examined in 48 hours after catching.

By: Azmer Abdulqadir Ahmad

Supervisor: Dr. Sundus Sultan


Infectious Diseases can be transmitted through direct and indirect contact. There are many diseases which can be transmitted in barbershop between people through the Barbershop supplies. Theses infectious diseases can be bacterial, fungal, or viral which cause serious diseases such as impetigo, lice, itch and HIV.  There are many Barbershops with various hair cut styles in Erbil, the capital city of Kurdistan. Some of the shops were clean but expensive while others were cheap but careless about cleanness. Many samples were collected from various places in Erbil barbershops in order to indicate how infectious diseases can be transmitted through barbershop equipment’s. First of all, they were sub cultured in natural agar, after incubating them in the incubator the clean and fungal samples were isolated, but those samples which bacteria have grown on the agar were selected and sub cultured in MacConkey agar and nutrient agar. After getting the results, gram stain was done for those samples to know the ratio of the gram positive and gram negative. It was surveyed and questioned among university students about cleanness and caress of barbers and customers in the barbershops. In conclusion, many diseases including life threatening ones such as HIV that can be transmitted easily to people through barbershop supplies which can cause death or some other diseases such as impetigo, itch and lice. The barbers and customers must be more careful about the dangers of the infectious diseases which can be transmitted easily through the barbershop supplies and cause fatal diseases.

By: bzhar mala jalal

Supervised by: Dr.Saber wasman


The utilize of chemical herbicides to reduce weed growth possess risks to environment, health, contamination of water, possess risk to microorganisms. Thus, it is imperative that research into more eco-friendly alternatives is examined. In addition, there are more than 470 biotypes of weeds that provide issues and are resistant to synthetic herbicides.

Peppermint is commonly the most wide spread used plant. This herb regularly develops around 24 inches tall or more, and comprises of purplish, square stems and elliptical purplish leaves with pointed tips, unmistakable veins, and toothed edges. It is therefore, peppermint is used to examine its extracts in weed management throughout its application to seed germination and seedling growth of some crop and seed species.

This experiment was conducted using petri dishes to evaluate effects of peppermint aqueous shoot and root extracts on seed germination and early growth of Horduem vulgareTriticum aestivum, Cephalaria syriacaZea mays. Extracts were prepared from dried shoots and roots of peppermint sampled at the maturity stage. The highest concentration (9%) of aqueous shoot extracts caused a significantly higher reduction in seed germination and seedling growth. However, low concentration (3%) had least effect. On the other hand, root extract had a less negative impact on seed germination and seedling growth than shoot extracts.

By: Hannah Kemal Surji

Supervised by: Dr. Sundes Sultan


Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, is any of the various vitamins that are fat soluble, chemically related to steroids, and naturally found in very few food products. In the skin, it is produced endogenously through the exposure of sunlight (ultraviolet rays), which triggers vitamin D synthesis. Vitamin D deficiency can cause major health risks as it is linked to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, rickets, and osteoporosis. The aims of this study are: 1- to determine the vitamin D levels of individuals (n=275) from different genders and age who were examined in various laboratories and hospitals in Erbil. 2- To evaluate the relation between gender and age with vitamin D deficiency. 3- To determine if vitamin D deficiency is becoming an epidemic in Erbil. 4- To evaluate the major risk factors of this nutritional deficiency. In this project, vitamin D test results were collected from five different laboratories and hospitals in Erbil city, Iraq. A total of 275 samples were collected, including 166 females and 109 males in different ages ranged from 19 years or younger to 60 years or older. The results were divided based on demographic information, including age and gender. The population was further categorized according to the vitamin D levels which consisted of deficient (0 – 20 ng/mL), insufficient (21 – 29 ng/mL) and sufficient (30 – 100 ng/mL). The results have shown that 86% of the female group was below the optimal vitamin D levels, while 82% of the males showed low levels. The results showed that there was no effect of gender and age on vitamin D levels. There was a high percentage of vitamin D deficiency in males and females in Erbil city; therefore, this research suggests that long-term vitamin D supplementation, adequate exposure to sunlight, and a balanced diet rich with enough dosage of vitamin D reduces the risk of multiple health issues.

Keywords: Epidemic, Vitamin D, Deficiency, Health Risks, Erbil

Prepared by: Ismael Maruf Saeed

Supervised by: Asst. Prof. Doctor Samir Jaudat Bilal


A total of 17 samples of Mastacembelus mastacembelus were collected from Greater Zab river near the Erbil city, Kurdistan region, north of Iraq, during February to the end of April 2019.In the laboratory, the fish was identified and then fishes have been opened from the abdominal site and the gastrointestinal tract was removed out and examined carefully for cestodes. Live cestodes were recovered from the intestine of the infected fish and examined by compound light microscope and scanning microscope, also histological sections were prepared for some samples. The study showed a number of differential characters of Senga mastacebeli which not revealed during the first description by also during the ultra-structural study it. The study improved that the species S. Mastacembeli is valid species name, also the type host of it M. Simach is regarded as a synonym to M. mastacembeli and the last is regarded as a type host for this cestode. And in this research dissection and inspection of samples showed presence of the cestod Sengamastacembeli prevalence (11.76 %) and mean intensity 0.17 respectively.

Key words: Mastacembelusmastacembelus, parasites,Aski-Kalak, Erbil. Endo-parasites.

By: Jihad baxtiar karim

Supervised by: Dr.Saber wasman


The aim of this research was to use of chemic weed killer to frustration the hazard to our domain like, H2O, contamination. Foods, Healthy, it is therefore imperative that research into more ecofriendly alternatives is conducted. Furthermore, approximately about 500 biotypes of weeds that are resistant to chemical herbicides. Terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) is a member of Anacardiaceous family and it is a fruit of turpentine tree which is one type of the 20 Pistacia species. Turpentine tree is localized especially in the shrubs and is found to grow in pine forests or on hillsides. It grows widely in the southern and western regions of Kurdistan and Mediterranean countries. It produces powerful allelochemical compounds that have been shown to affect some crops and weeds. My study was conducted to investigate bioherbicidal properties of terebinth on germination and growth of some crop and weed species. The study consisted of five experiments.

My experiment work with using Petri dishes to evaluate effects of terebinth aqueous shoot extracts on seed germination and early growth of Horduem vulgareTriticum aestivum, Cephalaria syriacaand Helianthus annuus s. Extracts were prepared from dried shoots of terebinth sampled at the exact maturity stage. The highest concentration is (9%) of aqueous shoot extracts caused a significantly higher reduction in seed germination and seedling growth. However, low concentration (3%) had least effect. On the other hand, root extract had a less negative impact our experiment,

In the result and conclusion, we inference that terebinth shoot extract plants has a great significantly influence of seed development and seedling growth than other extracts we saw. Although, the application of total phenolic compounds causes significantly more reduction in seed growing and make it earlier. Approximately about one month work with terebinth ground shoot has a greater effect on most parameters measured than aqueous of terebinth shoot extract in experiments, the effects of terebinth one month ground shoot, total phenolic compounds and trifluralin in Petridis experiments indicated that trifluralin have the unique event on seed growing and seedling growth while total phenolic compounds have least effect on seed germination.

By: Mutasim  Hazim Wali

Supervisor: Dr. Sundes Sultan


In the presence study, Incidence of Escherichia coli, Coliform, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Tap Water (Drinking Water) in Erbil city of 10 different samples of Tap Water was analysed from March 2019 to May 2019. The majority of samples weren’t contaminated with those bacteria, nine samples from ten weren’t contaminated that’s mean 90% of them were not contaminated, while 10% were contaminated with E. coli and Coliform. In presence study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa wasn’t present in any sample or any of water samples doesn’t contaminate with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteria. The presence of E. coli, Coliform bacteria in tap water (drinking water) is unsafe and unhealthy for drinking water.

By: Nasih Ahmad Hamad

Supervisor: Dr.Aydin Col


Escherichia coli as well as known as E.coli is a rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative coliform bacterium from the Escherichia genus which is generally found in the lower intestine of the (endotherms) warm-blooded organisms, also their cells can live outside the body for partial time. Most strains of E.coli are harmless, however some serotypes of them can led to serious poisoning of the food inside their hosts. For this research the data were taken from (Urine specimen, pyonephrosis drainage specimen, Pus evacuated from Renal pelvis specimen, Vaginal swap specimen, wound specimen, Aspiration specimen, sputum specimen ,  Fluid specimen, PCN specimen, deep wound swap, Subcutaneous pus specimen, Direct microscope, abscess specimen transplanted kidney, Kidney specimen, leg ulcer specimen). For this research the data were taken from (Urine specimen, pyonephrosis drainage specimen, Pus evacuated from Renal pelvis specimen, Vaginal swap specimen, wound specimen, Aspiration specimen, sputum specimen ,  Fluid specimen, PCN specimen, deep wound swap, Subcutaneous pus specimen, Direct microscope, abscess specimen transplanted kidney, Kidney specimen, leg ulcer specimen). The E.coli resistance rate to Ciprofloxacin has recorded in a high range in August 29% and had increased rapid in September and November and continuously in 50% in December , and the same record for the Levofloxacin.

By: Pshtiwan Mahmud Ibrahim

Supervisor: Dr. Saber Wasman Hamad


The use of chemical herbicides to suppress weed growth possess risks to environment, health, water contamination, possess risk to microorganisms. Therefore, it is imperative that research into more eco-friendly alternatives is conducted. Furtheremore, there are more than 470 biotypes of weeds that are resistant to chemical herbicides.

Peppermint is commonly the most wide spread used plant. This herb regularly develops around 24 inches tall or more, and comprises of purplish, square stems and elliptical purplish leaves with pointed tips, unmistakable veins, and toothed edges. It is therefore, peppermint is used to examine its extracts in weed management throughout its application to planting and seedling growth of some crop and seed species.

This experiment was conducted utilizing petri dishes to evaluate effects of Red cabbage aqueous shoot extracts on seed germination and early growth Horduem vulgareTriticum aestivum, Cephalaria syriaca, and Helianthus annuus. Extracts were prepared from dried shoots sampled at the maturity stage. The results indicatd that the highest concentration (9%) of aqueous shoot extracts caused a significantly higher reduction in seed germination and seedling growth of most studied crop and weed species. However, low concentration (3%) had least effect.

By Razan Majeed

Supervised by: Dr. Sundes Sultan


Water is one of the most essential constituents of life and water quality is considered one of the vital concerns for humans because it is directly linked with their health safety. There are different types of source water such as; rivers, springs, wells and lakes and streams which are considered as source for drinking water. However, recently there are many question marks about the quality of drinking water, because it may be attributed to the growth of different microbes which recognized as pathogenic to humans. The microbiological quality and safety of drinking water is considered now as one of the important subject because it related to public health concerns. The aim of this studies were to examine and analyze the microbiological quality of different brand names of bottled water which collected from various stores in different locations in Erbil city, in order to; i. determine the incidence of E. coli, Coliform, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in different brands of water in Erbil by using Most Probable Number (MPN) test; ii. Drinking water being supplied in Erbil city; iii. Assess the awareness strategies Check the quality of bottled among the people for maintaining the hygiene conditions for storage of drinking water to safe the community health in Erbil city. The results have been shown that there were two different types of bottled water (Life and Sky brands) contaminated with Coliform bacteria. Results of this study suggest that regular water testing is important approach to ensure the availability of contaminated-free bottled water. Simultaneously, awareness among the people and companies whose sale the water in Erbil for more hygienic conditions for storage and sanitize of bottled drinking water is needed to protect the community from using contaminated water.

Key Words: Drinking water, Bacteriological analysis, Most Probable Numbers, pathogens, E. coli, Coliform, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Erbil

By Salar Jamal Ahmed

Supervised by: Dr. Rozhgar A. Khailany


Foundation: Contamination with Campylobacter jejuni is a champion among the most generally perceived purposes behind gastroenteritis around the globe ; it happens more regularly than diseases influenced by Salmonella species, Shigella species or Escherichia coli O157: H7. In created nations, the rate of Campylobacter jejuni contaminations top during outset and again as early adulthood. The obstruction of Campylobacter spp. for certain anti-microbials, for example, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, antibiotic medication, nalidixic corrosive, kanamycin and erythromycin has been contemplated. Antibiotic medication opposition is frequently connected with the tet (O) gene, which is carried on transferable plasmids.

Objective: In Campylobacter, antibiotic medication obstruction is encoded by the tet (O) gene and is frequently connected with plasmids in conjugation. In northern Iraqi Campylobacter species, little was thought about antibiotic medication obstruction. Accordingly we researched this opposition in 40 human strains of Campylobacter jejuni.

Method: The identity of the tetracycline resistance tet (O) gene using genetic analyzer based on nucleotide sequencing.

Result: The results of the DNA sequencing revealed that the sequence of queries was 100% identical to the gene of tetO.

Conclusion:  These information demonstrate that the tet(O) gene, recently announced all through the world in Campylobacter strains, is available in Iraqi Campylobacter jejuni, which will prompt a more prominent comprehension of the conveyance of anti-microbial opposition in Campylobacter jejuni in Iraq.

Keywords: Campylobacter jejuni, Tetracycline Resistance, DNA Sequencing.


Supervised by: Dr. Aydin col


Throughout the 19th and 20th century, Anti-bacterial agents and antibiotics discovery played a very critical role in advancing and evolving human therapeutics options, in particular the development of anti-biotics to battle against bacterial infections. However, this very euphoria did not go so far as it assumed to be like, due to evolving of some micro-organisms that are able to survive even though by the existence of the anti-biotic agents that commonly kill them. Utilizing anti-biotics is the most significant means to control various bacterial diseases; however, the effectiveness of these drugs is being compromised by the growing levels of resistance. The overuse of antibiotics evidently initiates the development of resistance and has become a worldwide public health threat, as well our city. The global public-health system is facing an actual problem due to the emergence of resistant micro-organisms Moreover, the growing occurrence of resistant and multi-resistant micro-organisms strains globally load a weighty burden on health-care systems and the general public as well. However, the city of Erbil is witnessing a very apparent presence of several types of bacteria that are highly resisting several types of anti-biotics, in which this forms a very huge concerns to public health.

By: Shivan Jumaa

Supervised by: Dr. Sundes Sultan



In this study some of fungal species representing to be recorded. Ten samples of every salted and pure nuts; almond, cashew, Peanut, pistachio and hazelnut have been brought in some places and shops in Tayrawa, Qaysari, and Shekhalla from the Erbil city Iraq. That contaminated by some type aspergillus species fungi was observed in both salted and raw nuts products samples. isolated of all salted nuts was located to expand the resistance to all nuts to see and colonize via way of the fungal for the duration in storage. By using sabourand dextrose agar and potato dextrose agar to prepper the media. And Detection of aspergillus niger on all off the shops and types of nuts, and detection of aspergillus flavus two media and both of them was belong to one place. All samples were negative.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Almond, pistachio, mycotoxins, cashew, Aspergillus, peanut.

Soma Ahmad Rostam

Supervised by

Dr. Sundes Sultan



Water quality should be safe and accessible in Erbil which considered as is an important step towards reducing different types of waterborne diseases. Filtered water helps to improve the water taste and removed any type of contamination through the filtration process. In Erbil, the carbon filters system is the most common water filters used which including; faucet filters, reverse osmosis, gravity filters, pitchers/carafes, refrigerator filters. The aims of this study were to check the quality of household filtered water of in different locations in Erbil and to investigate water bacterial quality such as; E-coli, Coliform, and Pseudomonas 10 of different locations in Erbil city.  The water samples were collected from household water filtration system from 10 different locations in Erbil in May 2019. The bacterial water quality in this study was done by using MPN methods and the results have been shown there was no presence of any type of bacterial contamination in all the ten samples. The results suggested that filtered water is the best water to drink in Erbil instead of tap water and bottled water to reduce the infectious diseases that transmitted by water and safe the health of Erbil community

Key words: Bacteriological analysis, Household filtered water, MPN, pathogens, E. coli, Coliform, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Prepared by:

Wrya Agha Hassan

Supervised by: Asst. Prof. Doctor Samir Jaudat Bilal


Pigeon Colombia domestics is a worldwide pigeon that can be found everywhere, they feed on seeds, plants, and fruits. They make so many health problems for humans. When it was studied, Cestodes and Nematodes species could be found internally throughout dissecting but any Ecto-parasites wasn’t found. The parasites were taken from 9 pigeons. Two Nematode which is Molinues.sp and one Cestodes which is Pulluterina.sp were found the prevalence of Nematodes in the bird intestine was about 22.22% and the prevalence of the Cestodes the intestine of the birds was 11.11%. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence, intensity, and species of pigeon’s internal and external parasites in the Erbil/Kurdistan region between February and April 30, 2019.

Key words: Ecto-Parasites, Endo-Parasites, Pigeon Colombia, Erbil/Kurdistan

By: Yad Sirwan Awrahman

Supervisor: Aydin COL

By: Zanyar Tahssin

Supervised by: Dr. Rozhgar A. Khailany


Breast malignancy is the sort of disease that most influences ladies around the globe. It represents around 30% all things considered. KRAS gene is commonly started in around 20 percent of each and every energetic malignancy. Notwithstanding, the further improvement of clinically fruitful KRAS composed harm medicines was typically ineffective and KRAS mutant malignancies are among the most safe medications. KRAS modifies normally happen in numerous adenocarcinomas, for example, lung, pancreas and colon, and mutational enactment of KRAS in these tissues is adequate to instigate neoplasia in mice. The role of oncogene KRAS in later times of neoplastic improvement that is taken after the beginning is still inadequately comprehended. The point of this examination is to explore the presumable mutation and mRNA expression level of KRAS in breast malignant growth patients by following DNA sequencing and RT-qPCR investigation. The investigation included 75 matched control and tumor tests from patients assembled dependent on the kinds of breast malignant growth and the patients’ clinical characters, including age and grade of  tumors. The KRAS expression on the level; mRNA was essentially expanded (up-regulated) in tumor tests contrasted with the control tests. Notwithstanding, a heterozygous change (G> A) (GGT/GAT) was distinguished in two patients in the KRAS gene. Therefore, the up-regulated expression of KRAS on the level mRNA can be a hazard factor for breast malignant growth improvement and the changed KRAS expression level can modify individual breast disease affectability.

Keywords: Breasts cancer, KRAS, RT-qPCR, Nucleotide sequencing.

By: Zhilman Sarbaz Yasin

Supervised by: Dr. Rozhgar A. Khailany


Recurrent abortion is multifactorial involving clinical and biological risk factors. Evidence addressed the relationship of inherited thrombophilia with repeated pregnancy abortion and other serious pregnancy complications. However, the relation between thrombophilia associated gene mutations and adverse obstetric outcome is controversial and data in the literature are inconsistent. Main Purpose of this research was to exanimate the prevalence of Methylene-Tetrahydrofolate Reductase gene (MTHFR) variations in association with recurrent abortion. A total of 92 samples were screened in the project: 52 women with multiple consecutive abortion and 40 normal controls. DNA of genomic was extracted from whole blood. For evaluate the presence  of the both usual A1298C and C677T MTHFR gene variations in the women with recurrent abortion and controls, we employed real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). There is critical distinction in the pervasiveness of 677T/T genotype among ladies with repetitive premature birth and typical controls (P = 0.001). Consequently, the outcomes show significant difference in MTHFR C677T/A1298C genotype distribution among the healthy and women with recurrent abortion; hence, further examinations on bigger populace and other hereditary changes to more readily comprehend the molecular pathobiology of repeated pregnancy are required.

By: Zryan Amjad Hamakareem

Supervised By: Dr.Aydn Col


Escherichia coli bacteria: is a group or  a type of bacteria which  are a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium,  of the genus Escherichia  that can be found in the intestine of the warm-blooded organisms, most of the E. coli’s are harmless ,but still some of the serotypes may cause of poisoning of the blood in which their hosts , the harmless strains are a normal micro biota in the gut , and the host can get benefit because it can synthesis vitamin K2 and colonizing the intestine from those bacteria which are cause of bacterial pathogen , as a symbiotic relation,   this bacteria is expelled to the environment by fecal and E.coli can live in a variety of places can grows  in aerobic conditions, and also can use as a mixed-acid fermentation  in an anaerobic conditions.                                                                        

By: Abdulkadir Azad Hamad

Supervised by: Dr Saber Wasman


Watercress (Nasturtium nasturtium) is a medicinal herb with a number of biologically active substances Biological structures. (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) Herb from the Cruciferae family , native to Europe and an economically valuable herb in Portugal, with comprehensive uses in Local Kitchen. Fresh watercress leaves are used as salad greens, or maybe steamed and eaten as normal, cooked food. Watercress supplies quite a number of vitamins C and Provitamin A, folic acid, iodine, iron, protein and, in particular, Calcium and Sulphur compounds can influence its characteristics Smelling, whilst also having dietary benefits. Describing and explaining the all parts of the watercress and phenolic compound and soil allelopathy.

In conclusion, watercress shoot extract from plants which are two months old has a far greater effect on seed germination and seedling development than other extracts. The usage of complete phenolic compounds often triggers a substantially greater reduction in seed germination and early development. In pot tests, two-month watercress field shoot has a greater impact on most calculated parameters than aqueous watercress shoot extract. In addition, the effects of two-month ground shooting of watercress, total phenolic compounds and trifluralin in pot experiments indicated that trifluralin had the greatest effect on the germination of seed.

By: Adam Jalal Mohammed

Supervised by: Dr. Mohammed Merza


Background: high rate of SUA which known as (hyperuricemia) was affirmatively linked to high blood pressure which known as (hypertension), still this link needs more exploring, whether this link is free from other cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity.

Methods: In cardiac centre hospital in Erbil, 182 patients rolled in our study (113 males and 69 females; age >25 years) at the beginning of the research they were free from high blood pressure (hypertension) within September 2019– January 2020. A total of 182 participants were initially enrolled at cardiac centre in Erbil September 2019 to January 2020.

Result: within our data pattern features of the 182 members are exposed, in addition to the mean of serum UA concentration was meaningfully higher among the men than within the women. Higher rates of blood glucose, BMI, triglycerides, waist circumference, creatinine together with blood pressure were corresponded with high rate of serum UA. We noticed that those patients that had high rate of serum UA quartile in addition they had 3 or more components of the metabolic syndrome, they had more hazard to have hypertension than those who had low rate of serum UA without having any component of metabolic syndrome.

Conclusion: Within this study a positive link among high rate of serum UA with occurring high blood pressure (hypertension) within Kurdish community in Erbil (Kurdistan regional government) was proposed.

KEY WORDS: Hyperuricemia, Hypertension, Uric acid, Creatinine. Cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, obesity.

By: Awezan Arsalam

Supervised by: Asst. Lecturer: Mr. Rozhgar A. KHAILANY



Background and Objective: Infertility is considered as common problem which faces the couples, within each 6 couples at least one couple will safer infertility problems . However, numbers of cases of the male infertility remains idiopathic, it’s been shown that genetic factors have identified effect on fertility including chromosomes abnormalities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to show the different types of structure chromosome abnormality related to human male infertility. Mainly the microdeletions of the AZF region impacts on male infertility in Kurdistan region.

Methods: A total of 121 samples were collected at Zheen International Hospital in Erbil, Iraq. The study included 61 azoospermia samples and 60 healthy control samples. The blood samples of the azoospermia cases stored at -20˚C until DNA extraction.

Results: A total of 61 infertile men who were candidate for ICSI were selected. Of these patients, 8 cases have deletions in more than one region of AZF loci on Y-chromosome but no microdeletion was detected among control group. Totally 16 micro-deletions were investigated. Among the regions, AZFc had the most microdeletions 38% followed by AZFa 30% and the AZFb microdeletions have the less frequency 19%. In this study, among patients with microdeletion 3 case had deletions in all three AZF regions.

Conclusions: Chromosomal abnormality in general, and AZF region microdeletion of Y chromosome have sufficient impact on human male infertility. AZFc had the foremost microdeletion while AZFa ,AZFb got lower within AZF regionswhich relevant with worldwide data that have been worked on Y Chromosome Microdeletion.

KEY WORDS; Male infertility, chromosomal abnormality, AZF, microdeletion

By: Bawar Qadr Ahmad

Supervised by: Asst. Lecturer: Mr. Rozhgar A. KHAILANY


Background and objective: One of the world wide substantial problems in human binges society is the man infertility, Nevertheless, male infertility remains idiopathic in numbers of cases of the, it’s been shown that genetic factors have identified effect on fertility including chromosomes abnormalities. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to shed a light on the impact of numerical chromosome abnormalities on the male infertility in Kurdistan region based on the chromosomal analysis process.

Material and method: A total of 175 samples were collected at Zheen International Hospital in Erbil, Iraq. Including 100 azoospermia (Infertile) samples and 75 healthy control samples. Then by G-banding the carried out of the karyotype analysis takes place  After sample processing for all of them.

 Result: Among 100 azoospermic patients it was found that 22 individuals have Klinfilter syndrome. The study showed strong and significant association between Klinefelter syndrome and infertility. Statistically was significant (p = 0.0001, T-test; p > 0,05).

Conclusion: Our results suggests that a high genetic defect such as Klinefelter’ syndrome existence in male azoospermia. However, previously this study has been reported but not in Kurdistan region of Iraq. Moreover, it is very obvious that cytogenetic analysis is strongly suggested due to chromosome abnormalities in high prevalence over all infertile male in order to accurate detection and explaining if any chance would exist  for instance the process of testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/ICSI and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment.



KEY WORDS: male infertility, chromosomal abnormality, azoospermia, Klinefelter syndrome

By: Brwa Qanih Hamad

Supervised by Saber Wasman Hamad


In this study the impact of aqueous leaf extract of Trichodesma africanum L. on seed germination, development, chlorophyll, metabolites, ATP-ase action, NADHoxidase movement and oxide substance in Portulaca oleraceaL. dashes was investigated. The comes about show that watery leaf extract of T. africanum reduced seed germination, root length, shoot length, chlorophyll substance, soluble carbohydrate, insoluble carbohydrate and add up to carbohydrate substance. Moreover, the leaf extract of T. africanum decreased the dissolvable protein, insoluble protein and total protein substance. In expansion, the treatment driven to an increment in H2O2, and therefore the activities of NADH-oxidase in P. oleracea dashes. In any case, the treatment caused a discount in ATP-ase action in a very concentration-dependent way. The results indicate the conceivable application of T. africanum fluid leaf extract natural bioherbicide of P. oleracea and typically an financial procedure.


Trichodesma africanum, Portulaca oleracea, seed germination, growth, chlorophyll, metabolites.

By: Daroon Sahdoon Ghareeb

Supervised by: Dr. Mohammed Merza


Objective: To assess the prevalence of hypertension in Erbil town among people with diabetes mellitus (DM).

Materials and Methods: Hundred and twenty-two diabetics were tested for hypertension using a sphygmomanometer in the cardiac center to assess their blood pressure in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan Province Some Other data collected included age , sex, DM form, weight , height, body mass index, and the ratio of waist hip.

Results: Fifty nine out of 122 Those with hypertension yielded a prevalence of 48.3%. 31 males (58%) They were hypertensive compared to 28 females (52%), but this gap was not important (P > 0.05). 39 (82.9%) Of the 42 subjects of type 1, 58 (77.3 %) had hypertension and this disparity was statistically important (P < 0.05) among those of type 2.

Conclusions: Hypertension is normal in DM patients. Studies have shown that good blood pressure regulation decreases the microvascular and macrovascular DM complications. To regulate hypertension in patients with DM, DM care providers must prescribe effective antihypertensive therapy.

Keyword : Hypertension , Diabetes , Prevalence , Mellitus , significant , Control , macrovascular , microvascular , hypertensive.

By: Firdaws Jamal Rashid

Supervised by: Asst. Lecturer: Mr. Rozhgar A. KHAILANY


Background and Objective: Cervical cancer is the most common female malignancy cancer after breast cancer. The molecular findings have shown that particular kinds of human papillomavirus (HPV) are the major causes of cervical cancer which can be differentiated into two groups: the high and low risk according to the cancer association. Our aim was study to identify the correlation of HPV infection and cervical cancer occurrence through pre-analyzed and highly reliable evidences in Kurdistan.

Methods: A total of 152 samples were subjected to our study, the cervical swab samples of the suspected women cases stored at -20˚C until genomic isolation. These samples were subjected to nested multiplex PCR targeting 134 bp L1 capsid gene employing GP+/mGP+ primers and typing of genotypes-16 and 18, targeting E6/E7 gene employing primers the mGP + primers were designed by trimming bases from 5’ ends of GP + primers for this study.

Results: The study was detected 37 positive HPV DNA sequences from the cervical samples; 16 sample was HPV high resolution and 21 samples was HPV low resolution.

Conclusions: Compared to the last years, the prevalence of cervical cancer has dramatically increased, and the HPV role in this change cannot be ignored, therefore the NMPCR detection of HPV 16/ 18 along with other techniques might be a crucial for screening of the cervical cancer.

KEY WORDS: Cervical Cancer, HPV, NMPCR.

By: Gashbin Kamal

Supervised by: Saber Wasman Hamad


some crops and weed flora were sensitive towards extracts of radish plant. Tokura and Nóbrega (2006) determined that the aqueous extract of radish introduced allelopathic impact in the germination and in the preliminary development of corn plantlets. Koseli (1991) confirmed that regrowth of Johnson grass rhizomes

have been suppressed by incorporation of above and underground components of radish. wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) aqueous extract at more than a few tiers and radicle boom of some weeds used to be inhibited (Norsworthy, 2003). Turk and Tawaha (2003) discovered that germination and seedling increase of wild oat (Avena fatua) was inhibited by using aqueous extracts of black mustard (Brassica

By: Haneen Suleman War Qarban

Supervised by: Asst. Lecturer: Mr. Rozhgar A. KHAILANY


Background and objective: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), the main result of thrombophilia, is a heterogeneous disorder that affects women in the reproductive age. It causes repeated failed pregnancy before reaching 20 gestational weeks and it is commonly diagnosed within about 20% of all pregnancies. Along with other studies for the last two decades, it was ensured that the occurrence of different mutations in FVL is considerable to be the main risk factor that is highly responsible for developing this disorder. The purpose of this study includes estimating the prevalence of Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutations in women who suffered from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in the Kurdish population for the year 2020.

Material and Method: The data that were collected from a total of 197 samples, which include 102 recurrent abortion samples and 92 healthy control samples by the Zheen International Hospital in Erbil, Iraq.

Result: The results from the study indicated the obvious difference between the normal FVL and its mutant form as (p = 0.0002, T-test; p > 0,05), which can be summarized as having a mutation that changes the genetic from of the FVL gene can directly affects its protein expression. As a result, developing RPL in women who have the mutant allele of FVL. The results we got from the present study support that FVL mutation status is significantly associated with RPL.

Conclusion: The results have shown an obvious association between FVL and RPL. Therefore. Testing for having FVL mutation for women with unexplained RPL might be a very good idea as a considerable standard of care worldwide.

Keywords: Recurrent pregnancy loss, Factor V Leiden, thrombophilia, coagulation process, protein expression

By: Hezhin FarsHamamurad

Supervised by: Soran Kayfi


Multidrug resistance is considered big issue nowadays. Antibiotics have played a crucial role in controlling of infection; nevertheless, the inappropriate taking of antibiotics have resulted in the emergence of resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics. This has caused an increased interest in medicinal plants. Natural medicinal plants are considered the natural resources in production of new medication. Nature has been a source of medicinal agent for thousands of years and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources, based on their use in traditional medicine. Additionally, Plants synthesize secondary metabolites and phytochemicals and have great potential to act as therapeutics

Citrus lemon is among these plants which exerts the potential effects on human’s health especially as antimicrobial. Moreover, the biological effect of this plant is due to the high content of plant’s secondary metabolites.

Lastly, the main focus of this mini-review is to emphasize the potential benefits of C. lemon mainly the antimicrobial effects and the importance of phytochemical contents inside the plant.

By: Khadija Anwar

Supervised by: Soran Kayfi


since long time Plants have been used to treat health problems and to cure diseases including infections that caused by microorganisms. Awareness of the significance and healing properties have been transferred within communities over many centuries. Plants are considered an important source of secondary metabolite which adverse noticeable effects on human body. Moreover, these secondary metabolites which could be effective against microorganisms. Resistance of microorganisms against commercial medicine leads to seek an alternative way to overcome this issue.

Citrus sinensis is a rich source of secondary metabolites which contribute to the pharmacological activities attributed to this plant. Several types of chemical compounds have been identified in fruits, peel, leaves, juice and roots of Citrus sinensis

Many pharmacological investigations have been conducted to explore the properties of Citrus sinensis. to verify its consumption as a multi-use medicinal agent including different extraction methoads and solvents to emphasize the benefits of this plant. This presents review important botanical, chemical and pharmacological characteristics of Citrus sinensis —a species with valuable pharmaceutical properties Thus, in the present work, Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) with emphasis on their antimicrobial properties are reviewed




Key words:

Medicinal plant, Citrus sinenis, Phytochemicals, Antimicrobials

By: Muthana Esam Hashim

Supervised by: Neslihan ÖZTAŞ

Bacterial infections are one of the leading causes of death world-wide, and with the rising of resistance in nearly all bacteria, which made the treating of these infections significantly difficult. So, these infections need a huge development of antimicrobial medications in treating these infections, this led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance among different strains of microorganism. Generally, in Iraq and especially in Kurdistan region there is a rising concern about the antimicrobial resistance. P.aeruginosa is one of the most frequent species reported among burn patients there. Some studies in Erbil city exhibited that 86% of isolations were MDR and the chromosomal beta-lactamases was the common reason. This study displays the sensitivity and resistance of Fluoroquinolone, Carbapenem, Cephalosporin, and Ureidopenicillin among P.aeruginosa bacterial strains. Overall, the sensitivity of all these classes were close except the Fluoroquinolone, which was extremely low in compare with the other drugs.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of several selected antimicrobial drugs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium. as well as to draw a future research line for a further study to display a bigger picture around the increasing resistance rates of microorganisms within the possible treatment options.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antimicrobial, drug, resistance.

By: Nuha Nawsheroan Muhammed

Supervised by: Dr. Mohammed Merza


Background: Measurement of blood urea and serum creatinine in control group and patients for the estimation of kidney function in heart failure patients.

Aim: The aim of the research to illustrate the effect of heart failure on serum creatinine and blood urea as an indicator of renal function.

Method: Thirty patients of heart failure attending rizgari teaching hospital and cardiac center (patients group) and thirty normal persons (control group) were included in the study; serum urea and creatinine were measured for both groups in the Biological Experimental Laboratory All data are expressed as mean ± SD. Students test used to statistically analyze the differences between mean levels with baseline along the overall period of the study. A statistically significant value of p<0.05 has been considered.

Result: Serum creatinine level in patients group (1.3 + 0.89) significant elevation was seen (P=0.018) compared with the control group (0.7 +0.32), As well patients also displayed a significant elevation (P=0.004) in blood urea level (72.5 + 65.3) in comparison with control healthy persons (24.3 +7.2).

Conclusion: As shown in the results heart failure has a significant effect on the Kidney function as indicated by the significant elevation of serum urea and serum creatinine. In conclusion, Levels of serum creatinine and blood urea may have value as a quantitative trait to establish the severity of heart failure as indicated by kidney function.

Key words: heart failure, kidney function, blood urea, serum creatinine.

By: Pshu Kareem

Supervised by: Asst. Lecturer: Mr. Rozhgar A. KHAILANY


 Background and objective: Two times or more fetal loss before the fetus arrive to growth is called recurrent pregnancy loss RPL. Consider RPL has different cause, the pathophysiology of RPL is hard, tough, and poor to understood. Therefore, the estimate between PAI-1 4G\5G polymorphism and RPL is associated.

Material and Method: A total of 143 samples were collected from the Zheen International Hospital in Erbil, Iraq. Among them, 82 repeated pregnancy losses samples and 61 healthy control samples were taken.

Result: There is significant association in the PAI-1 4G\4G and PAI-1 4G\5G genotypes among ladies with recurrent abortions and normal samples. Statistically was significant (p = 0.0001, T-test; p > 0,05).

Conclusion: The present study showed that the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1(PAI-1 4G/5G) polymorphism correlated with the RPL.


Keywords: Recurrent pregnancy lose, PAI-1 4G/5G, Polymorphism, Plasminogen

Prepared by: Rozhbin Younis Mohammed

Supervised by: Doctor Saber Hamad



Because of fast spreading of the Nobel Corona Virus which is a global issue and affected everywhere. All places and ways to wanted place were prohibited to reach and closing all academic places. This research could not do any laboratory experiments, instead it reviewed one of the researches that was been done about the same plant before. This study conducted  to find out the allelopathic potential of Raphanus sativus L. roots aqueous extracted on growth and germination of, barley crops, weed plants and wheat  (Brassica napus, , Phalaris minorand, Avina fatua,), in order to show the ability of using  this extract as a herbicides. Results indicated the importance influence of different concentration 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of aqueous extracted  which compared to control 0% treatments on germination inhibition percentage, germination speed, germination percentage, Plumule and radical length, plunule and radical elongation velocity, Plumule and radical dry weight, seedlings entire dry weight, shoot-root ratio and seedlings vigor index. Among five studied plants species Barley and wheat were stronger than the other studied weed plants. In this study the influence were concentration dependent on all studied parameter, in the moment the effect of cooperation between concentration and plant species gave rise to important differences with determined features for both crop plants comparing to the other weed plants. Soothe radish aqueous extracts showed herbicidal influence on studied weed plants.

Key Words: Allelopathy, Radish Plant, Germination, Seedling Plants

By: Shangul Hassan Rashid

Supervised by: Neslihan ÖZTAŞ


The increase of pathogens which is resistant to antibiotics and the increase in the rate of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections are one of the major challenges for health system and represent significant problems for community health nowadays. The effects of inadequate antibiotic administration commonly meet in gram-negative bacilli, especially in pseudomonas aeruginosa which is notorious for its pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. P. aeruginosa is a gram negative, rod shaped bacillus which is broadly spread in hospital environment and in nature being the reason for hospital acquired infections resulting in excruciating life frightening infections because the bacterium spread speedily from the area of epithelial colonization to blood stream. Antibiotics are active chemotherapeutic agents which are ‘wonder drugs’ to fight and combat bacteria, they generally can eliminate the majority of bacteria inside the host. Some drugs of cephalosporins are known as antipseudomonal antibiotics because of their activity against p. aeruginosa but the potential development of resistance has weakened the success of using any therapeutic agent from the first time which such compound has been used. The aim of this study is to review the reasons of p. aeruginosa resistance with its mechanism and show the potential role of cephalosporins on p. aeruginosa with its adverse effects.

By: Sherwan Mohsin Othman

Supervised by: Neslihan oztaş


Klebsiella pneumonia bacteria are bacteria that is mostly harmless to human, but there is also some pathogenic one that the human can be infected with. B-lactam was one of the most efficient antibiotics to treat Klebsiella pneumonia infections along with other kind of antibiotics. recently less ability of aminoglycoside to Klebsiella pneumonia infections can be absorbed worldwide because of gaining the resistance from Klebsiella pneumonia to almost all antibiotics, particularly aminoglycoside which this research focus on. So, this research has been done to identify and determine the Klebsiella pneumonia resistance to aminoglycoside and its spreading in Erbil city. For this purpose, some samples were got from the year 2020, From infected patient by Klebsiella pneumonia bacteria. Then tested by two groups of aminoglycosides that were include amikacin and gentamicin to them, to examine either the Klebsiella pneumonia is sensitive or resistance to certain antibiotics. The results that have got from the study were too high amount of Klebsiella pneumonia resistance to each of aminoglycoside that has been used. It shows somehow ineffectiveness of this antibiotics against Klebsiella pneumonia anymore if couldn’t resist its rapid spreading. Klebsiella pneumonia gets stronger continuously. There are some solution and advices that has been provided in the paper for people to prevent its strength anymore against used antibiotics.

By: Shivan Khdir

Supervised by Dr. Mohammed Merza


Background and objectives: Despite the growing popularity of electricity drinks consumption, there are worries related to the safety and effectiveness of this type of drink. The intention of the present study was to evaluate the adjustments in blood biochemical parameters in young people in Erbil city.

Material and methods: Twenty four wholesome male and woman volunteer topics of range 19-30 years’ age bump off 250 ml of Tiger® beverage per day for one successive day after move design. The biochemical checks were evaluated before and after consumption, in the laboratory analysis the use of wellknown methods.

Results: There have been statistically great reduce in serum albumin, total protein, and GOT degrees before and after consumption of energy drink (Tiger beverage) (p<0,05). However, electricity drink consumption has no huge variations in serum electrolytes, urea, uric acid, creatinine, glucose, lipid profile, GPT, ALP, amylase, direct and whole bilirubin, and minerals.

Conclusion: These effects confirmed that power drink consumption may lead to hepatic injuries and to surprising metabolic modifications. Further studies are required to elucidate whether energy drinks are a safe choice for athletic and cognitive overall performance enhancement.

Key Words: energy drink, public health, hypertension, caffeine, adolescents.

Prepared by: Zalal abas Mohammed

Supervised by: Doctor Saber Hamad


Because of spreading the corona virus which is a global issue affected everywhere, that’s why every academic places are closing .and this research was been review research because that there is no laboratory experiment the just reviewed one research which was been done before about the effect of phenolic compound on plant. This study focus on effect of phenolic compound on plant growth and germination. Which phenolic compound was secondary metabolism acts as allelochemical which the effect on the plant. The plant contenting different types of phenolic compounds like (chloragrnic acid, syrigic acid, protocatechuic acid, synoptic acid) was effect on seed germination seeding growth of (Cephalaria syriaca,Triticum aestivum). And when four seed placed in each petri dish and add each phenolic in each petri dish the seed germination and seedling growth after seven day. Also that phenolic compound effect on the shoot length, seed germination and root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight. While the phenolic compound found in different concentration in plant because that the phenolic had different effect on seed germination or plant growth.

Key word: Allelopathy, phenolic compounds, allelochemicals

By:Zana  Hamid

Supervisor :Dr.Sabir


The study of those microorganisms living in the oral cavity is called Oral microbiology. Microbiology is also deals with the relation between these microorganisms and their relation with hosts as well. (Lamont, Hajishengallis& Jenkinson 2014) Oral cavity is compassed of throat, tongue, teeth, gums and cheeks.(Amerongen&Veerman 2002 ) It is the most complicated ecosystem for microbes in the human body. The oral cavity in human being is clean and sterile at the time of birth but it would be covered by fungi, bacteria or protozoa day by day. Moreover, it is the place where some microorganisms would live in for either a short period or long period. These microorganisms are either useful or harmful. When they get suitable conditions the start to grow up in oral cavity and many of them cause health disorders. There are some health problems caused by oral microorganisms that can cause even death. For example Candida albinos, If there reproduction exceeds normal range they will control our digestion system and it causes problems in human immunity system.

Nigella sativa can be used to control oral microorganisms. To show this we tried the disk diffusion of Kirby-Bauer. We used Muller Hinton and MacConky agars. 26g of Muller Hinton agar and 26g of MacConky agar are poured in to 500ml distilled water. Then they are autoclaved (pressure cooked) at 1210c for twenty minutes. We tried to culture microorganism from our mouth. By using swab we put the cultured microorganism into four petri dishes. We bring ten grams of black seed then we grind them by using stone grinder for about twenty minutes. After that, we power the grind black seed into 200ml of distilled water. Then we put this sample into the four petri dishes. We put the dishes into an incubator at 370c temperature for twenty fourhours. At a result we see that there is an obvious effect of the sample on the microorganism in fact the sample is nigella sativa and it can be observed that the microorganism are killed or controlled. The aim of this research is to show how nigella sativa effects the grow of oral microorganism.